It is due mainly to the recognition and tolerance of disagreement among the ulama over juristic issues that Islamic law is often described as a diversity with unity:that is, unity as regards basic principles, and diversity regarding the details. A tangible manifestation of ikhtilaf in Islamic law is the prevalence of at least five different schools of jurisprudence which have survives to this day and have followers throughout the Muslim world......... Download the full article in pdf attachment (below)
Islamic Studies 37 (1998), pp 315-338.
This article begins with a review of the meaning and concept of pluralism and such of its allied words as diversity and tolerance. Then it discusses a set of general premises of Islam such as divine oneness (tawhid), justice disagreement (ikhtilaf) and disunity (tafarruq) that have a bearing on pluralism.Human dignity (karamah), the moral autonomy of the individual (ikhtiyar) also substantiate the essesence of pluralism in Islam. Th rest of the article addressess the various manifestation of pluralism ranging from its ethno-linguistics, to religious, political, cultural and legal varieties. The concluding section argues, with the reference to Malaysia, that issues pertaining to ethno-religious pluralism call for deeper and more refined approaches to meet new challenges Malaysia is currently facing. The multi-religious and multicultural features of Malaysian society can be enriched by greater policy focus on integration that brings different religious and ethnic groups in closer proximity and contact in their places of residence, learning and work.......... Download the full article in pdf attachment (below)
A Qur’anic Perspective, Islam and Civilisational Renewal, Vol. 1, No: 1 (2009), pp 27-54.