While Islam emphasizes confirmity to the direction of the Qur'an and Sunnah, one finds in the same sources a parallel emphasis on rational inquiry exercise of personal opinion and judgement. This essay looks into the evidence in suppport of this statement and the extent to which Islam validates the freedom to formulate and express an opinion. It also examines the methodology and criteria that ascertain the validity of personal opinion and distinguish the acceptable ra'y from which is not tolerated. This essay also highlights how the detailed classifications of ra'y by the Ulama reflects a concern for latitude and tolerance on the one hand, balanced on the other by respect for authority and values which are deemed essential to Islam.

The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Vol. 7 (1990), pp 39-64.

Freedom of Association: The Islamic Perspective

Thursday, 30 December 1993 12:56
Published in Articles


IIUM Law Journal, Vol.3, no. 1 (1993), pp 23-37.

Freedom of Expression in Islam: An Analysis of Fitnah

Thursday, 30 December 1993 11:41
Published in Articles


This article develops the concept of fitnah and its bearing on freedom of expression. It puts together information from the unconsolidated source materials of the Shariah in a manner reflecting the interest and style of a modern student of comparative law. It also develops the theme that modern interpretations of seditious speech and conduct have done much to restrict the scope and susbtance of the freedom of expression.......... Download the full article in pdf attachment (below)

The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, Vol. 10, no. 2 (1993), pp 17-41.

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