HashimKamali

This article advances the theme that the conventional fiqhi articulations of the prescribed hudud punishments show inconsistency with the Quran and falls, therefore, due for a corrective. Whereas the Quran makes repentance (tawbah) and reform (islah) integral to the hudud punishments, the fiqh expositions of these punishments have entirely ignored that aspect of the Quran. To carry out this corrective and rectify the hudud theory in the way it is suggested below partakes.........Download the full article in pdf attachment (below)

Was the public caning justified?

Friday, 21 September 2018 00:00
Published in Media Exposure

Ever since the Sept 3 news of public caning of two women for lesbianism (musahaqah, also sihaq, tribadism) by the Syariah High Court of Terengganu, the issue came under public scrutiny.

Questions are asked about the fairness of the sentence, whether it was harsh and gave a bad impression of Islam and Malaysia, and whether it was sound under syariah law.

Those who defended the sentence mainly referred to syariah whereas the critics highlighted respect for human rights and dignity.

This was not the first time public caning made headlines in Malaysia, but it was the first time that the punishment was carried out in a public setting, except for the Syariah High Court in Tawau — yet, the victims always seem to have been women.

The facts of the case were that two women, aged 22 and 32, were arrested by Terengganu syariah law enforcement officers for attempting to have lesbian sex in a car in Dungun in April.

They had not actually committed, but attempted to commit musahaqah, as it is not easy to commit it in a car. They were sentenced under the Syariah Criminal Offences (Terengganu) Enactment 2001.

The actual offence of musahaqah is a syariah takzir offence “the punishment for which shall be at the discretion of the court”. Penal sentences in syariah must be founded on clear proof. The details of the act committed must be known unequivocally beyond doubt. Should there be any doubt, the judge is advised to be lenient, and avoid harshness.

The two women pleaded guilty in August to lesbianism and were sentenced to six strokes of the cane and fines of RM3,300. They were caned in front of over 100 onlookers in the court, including their family members, representatives from legal bodies and NGOs, and members of the media.

Musahaqah literally means rubbing fiercely without penetration, typically the act of two women rubbing their private parts against one another, which can also occur between two males. As for the juridical basis of musahaqah, fiqh textbooks refer to the Quranic passage that speaks in praise of believing women who “guard their private parts ( li-furujihim hafizun) except with those who joined to them in the marriage bond”.

The text continues to declare that “those whose desire exceed these limits,” to be transgressors (23: 5-7). Hence, all sex outside marriage, including musahaqah, is transgressive of the syariah limits.

Also quoted is the hadith that provides: “A woman may not look at the private parts of another woman nor may she sleep under the same cover with her.”

Another hadith quoted on musahaqah declares: “When a woman [sexually] approaches another woman, both of them are adulterers (zaniyatan).”

No punishment is, however, mentioned for musahaqah, hence, the conclusion that it is a transgression (maksiyah) that may be punished under takzir. The equation of musahaqah with zina in the second hadith is in its literal sense, as zina in Arabic means transgression and sin. But, zina and lesbianism are different in that the latter does not involve penetration nor does it threaten purity of the family lineage.

Confession under syariah law is also weak evidence as it can be distorted, obtained under pressure, and sometimes made as a way out of a vexed situation. Published information on the case indicates that the two women had initially pleaded not guilty in July, but they later changed their plea to guilty after failing to secure syariah lawyers to defend them.

From April 2018 when they were arrested until September they were under immense pressure in their private lives, and then by the media, especially the Malay media, that consistently described them as “lesbians”, “lesbian couple” and “deviant couple”. The confession they made under these conditions was, therefore, questionable.

Moreover, unlike the hudud offences and qisas (retaliation), which carry fixed penalties, takzir in syariah is an open category that can carry various sanctions: from a verbal reprimand to public warning, counselling, physical and custodial punishments — and in modern times, also probation order, suspended sentence, police attendance, etc.

There is a certain mindset on the part of syariah judges, however, that takzir must consist of caning and lashing. This was the case in times past when penal systems were poorly equipped to diversify forms of penalties.

But times have changed and when there are acceptable alternatives for takzir, an effort should be made to use them.

Aspects of takzir that the judge bears in mind are the conditions of society, public opinion, and the consequences of his judgment on Islam’s good name.

Sure enough, this case received bad publicity worldwide. Almost all major media channels carried it giving Islam and Malaysia a negative profile.

Even in Malaysia itself, women are not allowed to be caned under civil law. Then also, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad said on Sept 6:

“The cabinet is of the opinion that this (the caning) does not reflect the justice and mercy of Islam”, as it was the first conviction of same-sex relations under syariah law.

The prime minister added that the women should have been advised instead of being publicly whipped. 

In light of the foregoing, public caning in a blaze of publicity and humiliation for a first conviction with a questionable confession, in an unreceptive climate of opinion should have been more lenient.

A verbal admonition, or a suspended sentence of some kind might have been advisable to deter repetition, and would most likely have averted the unwanted publicity.

Mohammad Hashim Kamali is founding chief executive officer of the International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies Malaysia.

Published in: New Straits Times, Friday 21 September 2018

Source: https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2018/09/413635/was-public-caning-justified

The Quran does not mention any plague (ta'un) by name, but makes references to destructions of bygone people, adding also that calamities occur only within God's all-embracing knowledge (57:22; 64:11). Ta'un is the subject, however, of many hadiths in al-Bukhari and Muslim, including:

"If you hear of the outbreak of ta'un in a land, do not enter it; but if it breaks out in a place while you are in it, do not leave that place.

"When ta'un has struck, any faithful who stays patiently at home while knowing that nothing befalls him that God has not pre-ordained – earns the reward of a martyr," or "Death from a plague is martyrdom for every Muslim."

Lastly, "(And with regard to animals): The sick should not be taken where the healthy ones are."

Some Muslim scholars have drawn the conclusion that the Prophet's movement control orders during plagues are obligatory.

It is also not accidental that Ibn Sina (d. 428/1037), a Muslim scientist, was the first to introduce a 40-day social isolation measure calling it 'al-Arba'iniyah', which was almost literally translated as 'quarantine' in European languages.

The Covid-19 pandemic that has hitherto claimed over 325,000 lives, prompted authorities around the world, including in Malaysia, to impose restrictions on movement, business and travel.

The caliph 'Umar's management of the plague of 'Amwas is a case history of contemporary relevance: when the caliph heard of its outbreak, he decided to go to Syria himself to manage it. Upon reaching Surgh outside Madinah, he met with Abu 'Ubaidah al-Jarrah, Commander of the Muslim army in Syria, who advised the caliph to proceed to Syria.

At this point, 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf came forward and quoted the hadith from the Prophet that when plague is raging, one should not go from the non-infected to the infected area or vice versa. That settled the matter and 'Umar returned to Madinah.

The caliph then ordered that troops be moved to a healthier place in Jabiah. However, days after arrival, Abu 'Ubaidah died of the plague, followed by Muadh b. Jabal. Their successor, 'Amr bin al-'Aas executed 'Umar's orders to shift the troops to the hills, and to separate them into smaller groups to reduce interactions.

Covid-19 has also prompted questions over the higher purposes (maqasid) of syariah as to which comes first: protection of religion or protection of life. Although the conventional ordering of maqasid prioritises protection of religion (hifz al-din) over that of life (hifz al-nafs), actual life experience of the pandemic points to life as being the first priority.

Muslims were asked by their governments to perform Friday and other daily prayers at home to contain the deadly virus. Protection of religion had thus to give way to the protection of life. Travel bans imposed by Muslim countries also meant postponement of the 'umrah – and it looks likely even of the haj.

Congregational prayer and 'umrah are arguably Sunnah, not wajib, but even the haj proper, which is wajib, may be postponed to save life – a higher wajib. This order of priority is also noted in the following example: when a fit person sees another drowning, yet he runs the risk of losing the salat time – which should he prioritise? The answer is definitely to save the drowning.

Instances of conflict between the protection of life and that of property (hifz al-maal) have also been noted. Almost all businesses are shut under lockdown conditions and people are suffering, some with extreme hardship, yet all this is tolerated in order to protect life.

The traditional order of the maqasid that places religion first is based on an extremist scenario: when enemy forces attack a Muslim country, Muslims are duty-bound to fight and sacrifice their lives for their religion. But extreme situations are unrealistic, as no order can be observed in emergencies.

One also gives life to protect one's property, family etc., hence maqasid priorities should be based on normal, rather than extreme, situations.

For life is the sine qua non of all other syariah ordinances and should therefore come first. Hence, a corrective is due to the conventional ordering of the essential maqasid – if the syariah is to relate meaningfully to people's lives.

Mohammad Hashim Kamali is founding chief executive officer of the International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies Malaysia.

Published in: New Straits Times, Friday 22 May 2020

Source: https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2020/05/594630/islamic-history-shows-how-deal-health-threats

Unified currency for Muslim countries

Monday, 02 March 2020 00:00
Published in Media Exposure

Leaders of Malaysia, Turkey and Iran spoke at the inaugural session of the four-day summit on Dec 19, last year, themed 'The Role of Development in Achieving National Sovereignty' that was aimed at finding new solutions to problems facing the Muslim world and improving the wellbeing of the Muslims.

Foremost among the summit objectives was the proposal for Muslim countries to have a unified currency that would help reduce their dependency on the US dollar in international trade and finance. The dollarisation of global economy has granted power to the US to impose illegitimate demands, including punitive sanctions and tariffs on other nations, such as China and Iran.

Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, a long-time proponent of a gold-backed currency, said that the use of gold dinar and barter trade will be revisited and considered among Muslim leaders. He first mooted the idea some three decades ago at the height of the Asian Financial Crisis and again reaffirmed it at the KL Summit to agree on a common currency for trade among Muslim nations.

He explained that gold has a certain value for all countries. If one uses gold as a standard, one can call one's currency by whatever name, but it must relate to the value of gold in that country.

Iran President Hassan Rouhani called for an end to the domination of the US dollar with the suggestion of a single cryptocurrency that can be used among Muslim countries, adding that Muslim nations can create special mechanisms for banking and financial cooperation to minimise their reliance on the US.

Many commentators, including the American economist Jeffrey Sachs have long predicted the demise of the US dollar as the US share of the global economy has fallen to 15 per cent in 2019 from 21.6 per cent in 1980, based on estimates from the International Monetary Fund.

In comparison, China's economy now accounts for 19 per cent of the world economy, while the European Union, 16 per cent. Sachs predicted a shift from a dollar-based settlements system to a multi-currency settlement system involving the yuan and euro.

An agreement on a unified currency will undoubtedly be the most important outcome, if it does materialise, of the KL Summit.

If Turkey, Malaysia, Iran, Indonesia and Qatar take this initiative, it may well be taken up for consideration by the OIC (Organization of Islamic Cooperation) summit. This 'start small' approach, as Dr Mahathir put it, seems the right approach as it would be rather unwieldy to start at the wider OIC level that has 57 member states.

Opposition is expected, just as Dr Mahathir confirmed that when Malaysia mooted the idea of a common currency for Islamic nations a long time ago, the big powers stood in its way.

This is because when their currencies are used by others, it gave them added power. Then clearly if there are follow-up measures on the part of the summit participants, they must be resolute and able to withstand politically motivated opposition.

A unified currency for the Muslim world will naturally strengthen its economic resilience and standing in the world community, and ultimately help fighting poverty and degradation among Muslims.

These are indeed conducive also to the higher purposes (maqasid) of shariah, not only in respect of the protection of property (hifz al-mal) but also the protection of life (hifz al-nafs), and dignity ('ird) of individual Muslims and the Muslim community worldwide.

The KL Summit can be seen as a true reflection of maqasid al-shariah and of Islamic awakening on the part of its participants, and it merits therefore to be rigorously pursued.

Furthermore, the KL Summit was born out of a trilateral talk among Dr Mahathir, Imran Khan and President Reccep Tayyip Erdogan last September on the sidelines of the 2019 UN General Assembly session in New York.

While absent from the KL Summit, Imran Khan came on an official visit to Malaysia (Feb 3-4) to strengthen cooperation between Pakistan and Malaysia. It is reasonable to assume perhaps that Pakistan will be supportive of the unified currency proposal. No follow-up measures have yet been announced on this matter.

Since the summit participants have already made known their support for the proposal, it is now a question perhaps of determining a mechanism for its realisation.

It is proposed therefore that the summit participants set up a working group to make suitable proposals in a set period of time, say six months or a year, to show the way forward. Malaysia being the host country should perhaps start the ball rolling.

Published in: New Straits Times, Monday 2 March 2020

Source: https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2020/03/571104/unified-currency-muslim-countries


Unified currency for Muslim countries

Monday, 02 March 2020 00:00
Published in Articles

Leaders of Malaysia, Turkey and Iran spoke at the inaugural session of the four-day summit on Dec 19, last year, themed 'The Role of Development in Achieving National Sovereignty' that was aimed at finding new solutions to problems facing the Muslim world and improving the wellbeing of the Muslims.

Foremost among the summit objectives was the proposal for Muslim countries to have a unified currency that would help reduce their dependency on the US dollar in international trade and finance. The dollarisation of global economy has granted power to the US to impose illegitimate demands, including punitive sanctions and tariffs on other nations, such as China and Iran.

Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, a long-time proponent of a gold-backed currency, said that the use of gold dinar and barter trade will be revisited and considered among Muslim leaders. He first mooted the idea some three decades ago at the height of the Asian Financial Crisis and again reaffirmed it at the KL Summit to agree on a common currency for trade among Muslim nations.

He explained that gold has a certain value for all countries. If one uses gold as a standard, one can call one's currency by whatever name, but it must relate to the value of gold in that country.

Iran President Hassan Rouhani called for an end to the domination of the US dollar with the suggestion of a single cryptocurrency that can be used among Muslim countries, adding that Muslim nations can create special mechanisms for banking and financial cooperation to minimise their reliance on the US.

Many commentators, including the American economist Jeffrey Sachs have long predicted the demise of the US dollar as the US share of the global economy has fallen to 15 per cent in 2019 from 21.6 per cent in 1980, based on estimates from the International Monetary Fund.

In comparison, China's economy now accounts for 19 per cent of the world economy, while the European Union, 16 per cent. Sachs predicted a shift from a dollar-based settlements system to a multi-currency settlement system involving the yuan and euro.

An agreement on a unified currency will undoubtedly be the most important outcome, if it does materialise, of the KL Summit.

If Turkey, Malaysia, Iran, Indonesia and Qatar take this initiative, it may well be taken up for consideration by the OIC (Organization of Islamic Cooperation) summit. This 'start small' approach, as Dr Mahathir put it, seems the right approach as it would be rather unwieldy to start at the wider OIC level that has 57 member states.

Opposition is expected, just as Dr Mahathir confirmed that when Malaysia mooted the idea of a common currency for Islamic nations a long time ago, the big powers stood in its way.

This is because when their currencies are used by others, it gave them added power. Then clearly if there are follow-up measures on the part of the summit participants, they must be resolute and able to withstand politically motivated opposition.

A unified currency for the Muslim world will naturally strengthen its economic resilience and standing in the world community, and ultimately help fighting poverty and degradation among Muslims.

These are indeed conducive also to the higher purposes (maqasid) of shariah, not only in respect of the protection of property (hifz al-mal) but also the protection of life (hifz al-nafs), and dignity ('ird) of individual Muslims and the Muslim community worldwide.

The KL Summit can be seen as a true reflection of maqasid al-shariah and of Islamic awakening on the part of its participants, and it merits therefore to be rigorously pursued.

Furthermore, the KL Summit was born out of a trilateral talk among Dr Mahathir, Imran Khan and President Reccep Tayyip Erdogan last September on the sidelines of the 2019 UN General Assembly session in New York.

While absent from the KL Summit, Imran Khan came on an official visit to Malaysia (Feb 3-4) to strengthen cooperation between Pakistan and Malaysia. It is reasonable to assume perhaps that Pakistan will be supportive of the unified currency proposal. No follow-up measures have yet been announced on this matter.

Since the summit participants have already made known their support for the proposal, it is now a question perhaps of determining a mechanism for its realisation.

It is proposed therefore that the summit participants set up a working group to make suitable proposals in a set period of time, say six months or a year, to show the way forward. Malaysia being the host country should perhaps start the ball rolling.

Published in: New Straits Times, Monday 2 March 2020

Source: https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2020/03/571104/unified-currency-muslim-countries


The Quran does not mention any plague (ta'un) by name, but makes references to destructions of bygone people, adding also that calamities occur only within God's all-embracing knowledge (57:22; 64:11). Ta'un is the subject, however, of many hadiths in al-Bukhari and Muslim, including:

"If you hear of the outbreak of ta'un in a land, do not enter it; but if it breaks out in a place while you are in it, do not leave that place.

"When ta'un has struck, any faithful who stays patiently at home while knowing that nothing befalls him that God has not pre-ordained – earns the reward of a martyr," or "Death from a plague is martyrdom for every Muslim."

Lastly, "(And with regard to animals): The sick should not be taken where the healthy ones are."

Some Muslim scholars have drawn the conclusion that the Prophet's movement control orders during plagues are obligatory.

It is also not accidental that Ibn Sina (d. 428/1037), a Muslim scientist, was the first to introduce a 40-day social isolation measure calling it 'al-Arba'iniyah', which was almost literally translated as 'quarantine' in European languages.

The Covid-19 pandemic that has hitherto claimed over 325,000 lives, prompted authorities around the world, including in Malaysia, to impose restrictions on movement, business and travel.

The caliph 'Umar's management of the plague of 'Amwas is a case history of contemporary relevance: when the caliph heard of its outbreak, he decided to go to Syria himself to manage it. Upon reaching Surgh outside Madinah, he met with Abu 'Ubaidah al-Jarrah, Commander of the Muslim army in Syria, who advised the caliph to proceed to Syria.

At this point, 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf came forward and quoted the hadith from the Prophet that when plague is raging, one should not go from the non-infected to the infected area or vice versa. That settled the matter and 'Umar returned to Madinah.

The caliph then ordered that troops be moved to a healthier place in Jabiah. However, days after arrival, Abu 'Ubaidah died of the plague, followed by Muadh b. Jabal. Their successor, 'Amr bin al-'Aas executed 'Umar's orders to shift the troops to the hills, and to separate them into smaller groups to reduce interactions.

Covid-19 has also prompted questions over the higher purposes (maqasid) of syariah as to which comes first: protection of religion or protection of life. Although the conventional ordering of maqasid prioritises protection of religion (hifz al-din) over that of life (hifz al-nafs), actual life experience of the pandemic points to life as being the first priority.

Muslims were asked by their governments to perform Friday and other daily prayers at home to contain the deadly virus. Protection of religion had thus to give way to the protection of life. Travel bans imposed by Muslim countries also meant postponement of the 'umrah – and it looks likely even of the haj.

Congregational prayer and 'umrah are arguably Sunnah, not wajib, but even the haj proper, which is wajib, may be postponed to save life – a higher wajib. This order of priority is also noted in the following example: when a fit person sees another drowning, yet he runs the risk of losing the salat time – which should he prioritise? The answer is definitely to save the drowning.

Instances of conflict between the protection of life and that of property (hifz al-maal) have also been noted. Almost all businesses are shut under lockdown conditions and people are suffering, some with extreme hardship, yet all this is tolerated in order to protect life.

The traditional order of the maqasid that places religion first is based on an extremist scenario: when enemy forces attack a Muslim country, Muslims are duty-bound to fight and sacrifice their lives for their religion. But extreme situations are unrealistic, as no order can be observed in emergencies.

One also gives life to protect one's property, family etc., hence maqasid priorities should be based on normal, rather than extreme, situations.

For life is the sine qua non of all other syariah ordinances and should therefore come first. Hence, a corrective is due to the conventional ordering of the essential maqasid – if the syariah is to relate meaningfully to people's lives.

Mohammad Hashim Kamali is founding chief executive officer of the International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies Malaysia.

Published in: New Straits Times, Friday 22 May 2020

Source: https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2020/05/594630/islamic-history-shows-how-deal-health-threats

Was the public caning justified?

Friday, 21 September 2018 11:37
Published in Articles

Ever since the Sept 3 news of public caning of two women for lesbianism (musahaqah, also sihaq, tribadism) by the Syariah High Court of Terengganu, the issue came under public scrutiny.

Questions are asked about the fairness of the sentence, whether it was harsh and gave a bad impression of Islam and Malaysia, and whether it was sound under syariah law.

Those who defended the sentence mainly referred to syariah whereas the critics highlighted respect for human rights and dignity.

This was not the first time public caning made headlines in Malaysia, but it was the first time that the punishment was carried out in a public setting, except for the Syariah High Court in Tawau — yet, the victims always seem to have been women.

The facts of the case were that two women, aged 22 and 32, were arrested by Terengganu syariah law enforcement officers for attempting to have lesbian sex in a car in Dungun in April.

They had not actually committed, but attempted to commit musahaqah, as it is not easy to commit it in a car. They were sentenced under the Syariah Criminal Offences (Terengganu) Enactment 2001.

The actual offence of musahaqah is a syariah takzir offence “the punishment for which shall be at the discretion of the court”. Penal sentences in syariah must be founded on clear proof. The details of the act committed must be known unequivocally beyond doubt. Should there be any doubt, the judge is advised to be lenient, and avoid harshness.

The two women pleaded guilty in August to lesbianism and were sentenced to six strokes of the cane and fines of RM3,300. They were caned in front of over 100 onlookers in the court, including their family members, representatives from legal bodies and NGOs, and members of the media.

Musahaqah literally means rubbing fiercely without penetration, typically the act of two women rubbing their private parts against one another, which can also occur between two males. As for the juridical basis of musahaqah, fiqh textbooks refer to the Quranic passage that speaks in praise of believing women who “guard their private parts ( li-furujihim hafizun) except with those who joined to them in the marriage bond”.

The text continues to declare that “those whose desire exceed these limits,” to be transgressors (23: 5-7). Hence, all sex outside marriage, including musahaqah, is transgressive of the syariah limits.

Also quoted is the hadith that provides: “A woman may not look at the private parts of another woman nor may she sleep under the same cover with her.”

Another hadith quoted on musahaqah declares: “When a woman [sexually] approaches another woman, both of them are adulterers (zaniyatan).”

No punishment is, however, mentioned for musahaqah, hence, the conclusion that it is a transgression (maksiyah) that may be punished under takzir. The equation of musahaqah with zina in the second hadith is in its literal sense, as zina in Arabic means transgression and sin. But, zina and lesbianism are different in that the latter does not involve penetration nor does it threaten purity of the family lineage.

Confession under syariah law is also weak evidence as it can be distorted, obtained under pressure, and sometimes made as a way out of a vexed situation. Published information on the case indicates that the two women had initially pleaded not guilty in July, but they later changed their plea to guilty after failing to secure syariah lawyers to defend them.

From April 2018 when they were arrested until September they were under immense pressure in their private lives, and then by the media, especially the Malay media, that consistently described them as “lesbians”, “lesbian couple” and “deviant couple”. The confession they made under these conditions was, therefore, questionable.

Moreover, unlike the hudud offences and qisas (retaliation), which carry fixed penalties, takzir in syariah is an open category that can carry various sanctions: from a verbal reprimand to public warning, counselling, physical and custodial punishments — and in modern times, also probation order, suspended sentence, police attendance, etc.

There is a certain mindset on the part of syariah judges, however, that takzir must consist of caning and lashing. This was the case in times past when penal systems were poorly equipped to diversify forms of penalties.

But times have changed and when there are acceptable alternatives for takzir, an effort should be made to use them.

Aspects of takzir that the judge bears in mind are the conditions of society, public opinion, and the consequences of his judgment on Islam’s good name.

Sure enough, this case received bad publicity worldwide. Almost all major media channels carried it giving Islam and Malaysia a negative profile.

Even in Malaysia itself, women are not allowed to be caned under civil law. Then also, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad said on Sept 6:

“The cabinet is of the opinion that this (the caning) does not reflect the justice and mercy of Islam”, as it was the first conviction of same-sex relations under syariah law.

The prime minister added that the women should have been advised instead of being publicly whipped. 

In light of the foregoing, public caning in a blaze of publicity and humiliation for a first conviction with a questionable confession, in an unreceptive climate of opinion should have been more lenient.

A verbal admonition, or a suspended sentence of some kind might have been advisable to deter repetition, and would most likely have averted the unwanted publicity.

Mohammad Hashim Kamali is founding chief executive officer of the International Institute of Advanced Islamic Studies Malaysia.

Published in: New Straits Times, Friday 21 September 2018

Source: https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2018/09/413635/was-public-caning-justified

Copyright by HashimKamali 2012-2020. All rights reserved.